Thomas was born in Birmingham in 1882, the son of William and Sarah Hannah Wiltshire. They were living in Aston, Warwickshire, in 1901. In 1902, he married Louisa Smith in Aston. By 1911, they were living at 29 Wolverhampton Road, Wednesfield, together with their daughter, Winifred. Thomas had become a fitter of railway axle boxes.
Thomas enlisted in the 1st/6th Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment (number 2415, later 240337). He was killed in action on 1 July 1916. He is remembered on both the Thiepval and the Wednesfield memorials.